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22/Apr/2022
RoHS: Impact study finds positive results, review process has started
The importance of RoHS, the restriction of hazardo
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06/Jan/2022
“Fire Resistance in Plastics" addresses the need for flame retardants for e-mobility – halogen-free solutions in clear focus
The Fire Resistance in Plastics is one of the most
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23/Dec/2021
FRPM 2023, European Meeting on Fire Retardant Polymeric Materials, 26.-29.06.2023
  FRPM 21, one of the most important scien
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15/Dec/2021
New pinfa brochure on innovative fire safety in transportation
Transport vehicles increasingly rely on polymeric
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07/Oct/2021
“European Meeting on Fire Retardant Polymeric Materials" in Budapest - FRPM21 – real people meeting again live to discuss science
The European Meeting on Fire Retardant Polymeric M
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17/Aug/2021
Webinar “Resistance to fire, heat and their contaminants” increases awareness for flame retardant solutions for transportation
During this year's webinar by Octima, solution
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Phosphorus

Mode of action: formation of a solid charred surface layer of phosphorus compounds and in specific cases interruption of the radical chain process in the gas phase.

Phosphorus-containing flame retardants primarily act in the solid phase of the polymer. The flame retardant is transformed into phosphoric acid by thermal degradation, and water is released from the substrate in the solid phase.


A protective layer is developed by the polyphosphoric acid formed and by subsequent charring. The protective layer consists of interpenetrating networks of carbon and phosphorus oxides.


Specific phosphorus flame retardants such as the metal phosphinates may also act in the gas phase by the formation of P and PO radicals interrupting the radical chain mechanism of the cumbustion process.


Important phosphorus-containing flame retardants are:

Resorcinol bis (diphenyl phosphate) (RDP) is mainly used to flame retard PC/ABS blends.


Triaryl phosphates are used for many applications in thermoplastics.


Metal phosphinates are increasingly used in glass fiber reinforced polyamides and polybutylene terephthalate.


9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and its derivates are used in polyester fibers and increasingly in printed circuit boards.


Trischloropropyl phosphate (TCCP) is mainly used in polyurethane flexible foams.


Ammonium polyphosphate (APP) is applied in intumescent formulations, polypropylene and thermosets such as unsaturated polyesters.


Red phosphorous is mostly used in polyamides.