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Updated comprehensive overview about flame retardants available
The article about flame retardants in ULLMANN'
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Bromine (chlorine)

Mode of action: interruption of the radical chain mechanism of the combustion process in the gas phase:

The high-energy OH and H radicals formed by chain branching in the fire are removed by the halogen-containing flame retardant as follows:

2. Formation of hydrogen halides (HX)

1. Release of halogen radicals (X*=Cl*, Br*) from the flame retardant (R-X)

3. Neutralization of energy-rich radicals

Important brominated flame retardants are:

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA). It is mainly used as a reactive component in printed circuit boards.

Decabromdiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE). It is a universally used flame retardant for all plastics and textiles. In Europe, however, it has been banned for the electrical/electronics sector (RoHS Directive). In the USA, the production of Deca-DBE will be discontinued soon.

Hexabromcyclododecane (HBCDD) is mainly used in polystyrene foams (EPS ans XPS). For environmental and health reasons, it will no more be used in Europe as of 2015 (REACh).

The most important chlorinated flame retardants are:

Dedecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (Dechlorane) is used in polyamides.

Chloroparaffins are used as liquids in thermoplastics, thermosets and elastomers.